Alternative polyadenylation coordinates embryonic development, sexual dimorphism and longitudinal growth in Xenopus tropicalis.

RNA alternative polyadenylation contributes to the complexity of information transfer from genome to phenome, thus amplifying
gene function. Here, we report the first X. tropicalis resource with 127,914 alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites
derived from embryos and adults. Overall, APA networks play central roles in coordinating the maternal–zygotic transition
(MZT) in embryos, sexual dimorphism in adults and longitudinal growth from embryos to adults. APA sites coordinate
reprogramming in embryos before the MZT, but developmental events after the MZT due to zygotic genome activation. The
APA transcriptomes of young adults are more variable than growing adults and male frog APA transcriptomes are more
divergent than females. The APA profiles of young females were similar to embryos before the MZT. Enriched pathways in
developing embryos were distinct across the MZT and noticeably segregated from adults. Briefly, our results suggest that
the minimal functional units in genomes are alternative transcripts as opposed to genes.
Publication Name: 
Cellular and molecular life sciences
Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Yangzi; Michal, Jennifer J; Qu, Lujiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Wildung, Mark R; Du, Weiwei; Pouchnik, Derek J; Zhao, Hui; Xia, Yin; Shi, Honghua; J